Hiroaki Okayasu,1 Takahiro Shinozaki,1 Yumiko Takano,1 Norio Sugawara,1 Kumiko Fujii,2 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Yuji Ozeki,2 Kazutaka Shimoda1
1Department of Psychiatry, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan
Correspondence: Hiroaki Okayasu Tel +81 282-86-1111
Email [email protected]
Purpose: Antipsychotic drugs have been implicated as risk factors for QT prolongation, which is a predictor of sudden cardiac death. However, the QT interval is considered an imperfect marker for proarrhythmic risk. Recently, improved methods, namely, QT dispersion (QTD), QTD ratio (QTDR), T wave peak-to-end interval (Tp-e), Tp-e/QT ratio and Tp-e/QTc ratio, have been regarded as proarrhythmic risk markers. We attempted to reevaluate the risk of sudden cardiac death due to antipsychotics use by measuring these improved evaluation methods.
Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated QTc, QTD, QTDR, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT ratio and Tp-e/QTc ratio from the medical records of 410 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, or 5th Edition. Information on drugs administered was obtained from medical records. We investigated the correlation between each index on ECG and medication, such as antipsychotics, prescribed to participants with linear regression analysis. We also compared each index between 235 healthy controls and 235 patients matched for age and sex.
Results: Positive correlations between QTc and levomepromazine and brexpiprazole were identified. Levomepromazine and lithium were positively correlated with QTD. Levomepromazine, quetiapine, asenapine, clozapine and carbamazepine were positively correlated with QTDR. Levomepromazine, olanzapine, brexpiprazole and lithium were positively correlated with Tp-e. Olanzapine, brexpiprazole and lithium were positively correlated with the Tp-e/QT ratio. Olanzapine, brexpiprazole and lithium were positively correlated with Tp-e/QTc ratio. Significant differences in all indexes were noted between the patients and healthy controls.
Conclusion: According to our results, the prediction of the risk of sudden cardiac death by each index was inconsistent. We should evaluate the predictive factor of ventricular arrhythmia according to various electrocardiogram indexes because QTc alone could not identify the risk of sudden cardiac death.
Keywords: antipsychotic drugs, sudden cardiac death, electrocardiogram, QT prolongation, QT dispersion, T peak-to-end interval
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