OBJECTIVES: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is the most common reason for abdominal surgery in infants; however, national-level data on incidence rate and resource use are lacking. We aimed to examine the national trends in hospitalizations for IHPS and resource use in its management in the United States from 2012 to 2016.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective serial cross-sectional study using data from the National Inpatient Sample, the largest health care database in the United States. We included infants aged ≤1 year assigned an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, or International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code for IHPS who underwent pyloromyotomy or pyloroplasty. We examined the temporal trends in the incidence rate (cases per 1000 live births) according to sex, insurance status, geographic region, and race. We examined resource use using length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. Linear regression was used for trend analysis.
RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, there were 32 450 cases of IHPS and 20 808 149 live births (incidence rate of 1.56 per 1000). Characteristics of the study population were 82.7% male, 53% white, and 63.3% on Medicaid, and a majority were born in large (64%), urban teaching hospitals (90%). The incidence of IHPS varied with race, sex, socioeconomic status, and geographic region. In multivariable regression analysis, the incidence rate of IHPS decreased from 1.76 to 1.57 per 1000 (adjusted odds ratio 0.93; 95% confidence interval 0.92–0.93). The median cost of care was $6078.30, whereas the median LOS was 2 days, and these remained stable during the period.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of IHPS decreased significantly between 2012 and 2016, whereas LOS and hospital costs remained stable. The reasons for the decline in the IHPS incidence rate may be multifactorial.